Classified personnel
Noncertified school system employees responsible for noninstructional services such as plant maintenance, food preparation and distribution, clerical work, business management, health care and teacher assistance.
Classical realism
A philosophy which holds that all truths—all “realities”—may be found in the great works that have survived throughout history and become eternal.
Classical languages
The languages used in the classical civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome.
Classical education
A curriculum that emerged from the clerical and ministerial colleges of the Middle Ages. It has now come to mean a broad-based study of the liberal arts and sciences, as opposed to practical or preprofessional courses of study.
Clark University
The first American institution of higher education started solely for graduate education in the sciences.
Kenneth B. Clark (1914–2005)
African-American social scientist, psychologist and educational reformer, whose pioneer research in education proved crucial to the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1954 decision to outlaw school segregation.
Civil War
The war between the northern and southern states. Fought over four years, from 1861 to 1865, the war had far-reaching short- and long-range repercussions on American education.
Civil Rights Commission
A six-member group appointed by the president, with responsibility to investigate racial, religious, ethnic and other types of discrimination.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A far-reaching federal law that banned racial and ethnic segregation in American public schools, colleges and universities and all other educational institutions receiving federal assistance.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
A 1930s, Depression-era program of the U.S. government that pioneered many early techniques in adult education and put more than 2.5 million unemployed young men to work on vital land and forest conservation projects.
A one-year course in American government, its mechanics and methods of functioning.
City University of New York
The public system of higher education operated by the City of New York in the city’s five boroughs.
Citizenship education
The study of the rights and responsibilities of United States citizens and the mechanics of government.
Church-state conflicts
In education, those conflicts centering over government prohibition against the teaching or practice of any religion in publicly funded educational institutions.
Church-related schools
Educational institutions that integrate religious instruction into their curricula and are operated either directly by religious authorities or lay authorities associated with a religious sect.
Church of England
The third of the Protestant churches to emerge during the Reformation, after Lutheranism and Calvinism.
Usually, the religious organizations made up of believers in Christ...
Christian schools
Private, fundamentalist Protestant, or evangelical, schools that are usually members of one of four associations: the American Association of Christian Schools...
Choral speaking
A pedagogical technique to help youngsters of any age learn to appreciate and enjoy poetry, free verse and dramatic prose.
Child Welfare League of America
A child advocacy organization that sets standards for and accredits a wide range of child care facilities and agencies...
Child study movement
A massive effort by educators and psychologists who in the 1890s began to document all elements of CHILD DEVELOPMENT.
Children’s Television Workshop
A television production company of the 1960s, now known as Sesame Workshop and owned by Time Inc., and 1970s that produced the first educational television programs for children.
Children’s rights
The privileges, protection and other entitlements granted to children under the law. Because of their status as dependents, minors traditionally have had few, if any, legal “rights.”
Children’s organizations
Voluntary fraternal and sororal organizations founded largely in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to supplement the work of schools in shaping the characters of American youngsters.