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Published: August 8, 2011

More Effective Schools

An early, pioneering educational reform scheme introduced into public schools in 1964 in economically deprived areas of New York City. Supported by the UNITED FEDERATION OF TEACHERS, the scheme reduced class size, increased spending and added counseling and psychological services in 21 racially mixed schools. At the end of three years, however, an evaluative study by the Center for Urban Education found the scheme had “made no significant difference in the functioning of the children.” Although there were angry confrontations between, and contradictory claims from, proponents and opponents of the scheme, the reasons for the failure were never fully explained.