Junior Achievement - American EducationA nonschool business- education program for secondary school students, akin to the 4-H programs in agricultural education. Indeed, JA was formed in 1919 by two corporation executives who sought to create an urban counterpart to 4-H, by teaching 8- to 12-year-olds about free enterprise and by helping them form and operate their own businesses successfully. Later redesigned for secondary school youngsters, JA matches groups of about 20 youngsters with a volunteer adult advisor who helps them form, operate and liquidate their own businesses. JA companies run the range of business categories, although most tend to concentrate on manufacturing such products as T-shirts that can easily be sold in the school community. Student participants meet about twice weekly to elect officers, bring the books up to date, produce and package their products and conduct other company business. At the end of the school year, they liquidate their business, distributing dividends to stockholders and profits to company workers. Subsidized exclusively by the local business community, JA programs involve hundreds of thousands of youngsters across the United States and tens of thousands of volunteer advisors. JA also sponsors weekly seminars in high schools and colleges and summer work projects for disadvantaged youngsters.