Hunter Model - American Education
A formal codification of the teaching process for elementary and secondary school education. Drawn from a myriad of learning theories, the Hunter Model was devised in 1980 by contemporary California educator/psychologist Madeline Hunter, who pulled together and ordered all elements of the learning process into a short, easy-to-learn, logical sequence that teachers can use to improve their teaching techniques. The model was taught routinely during in-service training of tens of thousands of teachers during the 1980s, and despite occasional modification it continues to influence American pedagogy. The model breaks teaching down into these nine elements:
- Diagnosis: Identifying the student’s current level of achievement in a subject area.
- Specific objective: Selection of a clearly stated goal or goals for a particular lesson.
- Anticipatory set: Focusing the student’s attention in preparation for the lesson.
- Perceived purpose: Explaining the objective to students and ensuring their understanding.
- Learning opportunities: Selection of activities and materials to help achieve the lesson objectives.
- Modeling: The presentation of verbal and visual examples to reinforce the lesson.
- Check for understanding: Determining how well the lesson objectives have been achieved.
- Guided practice: Guiding and monitoring student practice.
- Independent practice: Creation of opportunities for additional student practice (homework, for example) free of teacher guidance.